The parent training included reading about PRT, watching video examples, role-play scenarios, and video self-modeling. The self-model videos were recorded interactions between this mother and son and can be used to allow the mother to see and discuss her own use of the techniques with the researchers.
The study used an A-B design to measure the child’s rates of compliance with instructions/requests before and during the use of the techniques. While an A-B design does not allow us to make definite conclusions about the effectiveness of the techniques used (read the section of this document on page 228 for more information on why), the data seem to indicate an improvement. Before using the techniques, this child followed about 50% of parent requests (on average, with a range of about 35% to 70%). While using the techniques, the child followed about 90% of parent requests (on average, with a range of about 79% to 100%).
If you’d like more information about the study, please read the article. See below for some of Positively Autism's thoughts on how you can use this information with your children or students.
Improving a Family’s Overall Quality of Life Through Parent Training in Pivotal Response Treatment
Trevor W. Buckley, MA
Angela P. Ente, MA
Michael B. Ruef, PhD
Journal Publication Information:
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
2014, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 60 – 63
Article Information: http://pbi.sagepub.com/content/16/1/60.abstract
How Can You Use This Research?
Ways to Offer Choices
When asking children to do something, it helps give them a feeling of empowerment when they have some choice in the matter. It can also increase the likelihood of the request being followed. The best way to offer choices is to give a limited number of choices, all of which are acceptable to you. Examples of choices include:
- If you have multiple things you need a child to do, let them choose the order. You can even have the child place the tasks on a visual schedule or to-do list.
- Give them a choice of two or three shirts, pairs of shorts, or other clothing items to choose. Depending on the age, you can offer more or fewer options to choose from.
- Give a choice of sitting on a chair or the floor to do homework.
A video with additional ideas is below. Please note that Positively Autism is not affiliated with or endorsed by the producer of this video.
Of course, it seems obvious to make sure you have someone’s attention before you ask them to do something, but I used to frequently overlook this when talking to my son or beginning discrete trial teaching with my students. I would just start talking to my son or beginning the trial before I’ve made sure he’s paying attention. Half of the time, I would end up having to repeat myself.
Using discrete trial teaching (or other teaching methods), you can work on teaching a child to respond to his or her name or to a phrase such as, “Look at me.” Here is a video example. Please note that Positively Autism is not affiliated with or endorsed by the producer of this video.
It doesn’t matter as much the way you get your child or student’s attention before making a request; it’s more important to remember to do so.
Discrete Trial Training (DTT) Step-By-Step Instructions: http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/DTT_Steps_0.pdf
The suggestions made based on the article (in the section "How Can You Use This Research") are from Positively Autism and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the authors or publishers of this study. Please note that this blog post is for informational purposes only. None of the information presented here is intended to be used without consulting appropriate professionals, such as a medical doctor, LPC, or BCBA.