Why is Video Prompting Useful? Using videos to teach is helpful because people with autism tend to be visual learners. Video instruction capitalizes on this learning style. It also may be more motivating than in-person instruction because many people with autism may prefer technology and electronic screen media.
The short video clips of video prompting allow the viewer to process smaller amounts of information at a time. This may lead to faster mastery of a task.
Video prompting allows a person to gradually learn the steps of a task, which can help build confidence.
Which Daily Living Skills Has Video Modeling Been Used to Teach? Video prompting works well for daily living skills that involve a sequence of steps. Examples may including doing laundry or dishes, putting away groceries, preparing a simple meal, setting the table, using a copy machine or other office equipment, etc.
How Do I Use Video Prompting to Teach Skills? The first step in using video prompting is to define exactly which skill you want to teach, and list out all the steps to complete the skill. This is not as easy as you might think! You need to think about how small you want the steps to be. For example, is it enough to list the steps for getting reading in the morning as (1) brush teeth, (2) wash face, (3) get dressed, and (4) brush hair? Or, do you need to break each of these steps down into smaller steps? This will depend on how well the person with autism learns from video instruction, and their current skill levels.
To make the list of steps (called a task analysis), a good strategy is to observe someone else do the skill, and list each step they do as you watch them. Some additional info about writing a task analysis is here. An example of a task analysis for washing hands is here.
Once you've got the task analysis, you film someone doing all the steps in the task. You can break the video up into the individual clips, and add text or voice-over describing each step on the video if you would like.
Like you would with any prompt, you want to try to reduce the person's need for the prompts if possible. Try to help the person rely less on the video and complete the steps independently as he or she gets more comfortable with repeated practice.
Comparing Video Prompting to Video Modeling for Teaching Daily Living Skills to Six Adults with Developmental Disabilities
By Helen Cannella-Malone, Jeff Sigafoos, Mark O’Reilly, Berenice de la Cruz, Chaturi Edrisinha, and Giulio E. Lancioni
Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 2006, 41(4), 344–356